Where does all this leave India? India can abstain indefinitely from joining the WTO GPA. However, such a decision to “abstain” from this agreement will no longer be passive and will have to be taken elsewhere after the defence and the search for market access opportunities. Although the country opted for a mixed economic model immediately after independence and adopted economic reforms in the 1990s to give more room for manoeuvre to market forces, the role of government and its public procurement has not been undermined, both at the national and subnational levels. Rigid attitude: India could at most agree to ensure transparency in government procurement. Based on the GPA parties` submission, the study showed that, in the case of Japan, government procurement appears to be far from being globally integrated, as evidenced by the composition of Japanese government procurement of goods and services, which highlighted the relative shares of Japanese government procurement above the threshold for goods and services by domestic and foreign suppliers. The government has tightened its procurement standards to make it more difficult for ministries to issue global tenders for contracts worth up to ₹200 billion. In the case of Chinese Taipei, for example, data show that more than 95% of total procurement contracts are awarded to domestic companies above the threshold, while in the EU, less than 5% of the size of the total public procurement market – out of €292 billion, only €13 billion has been awarded to other GPA countries. However, local tenders launched before May 15, the date of entry into force of the new purchasing standards, do not count. It is not surprising that, in the free trade association that the EU is developing with India, the former has sought a separate chapter for accession to New Delhi on public procurement, even to the limited extent of the exchange of information! The text of the agreement contains rules that must ensure an open, fair and transparent playing field in public procurement.
However, these rules do not automatically apply to all purchasing activities of each party.. . . .